This is a shrink in the and it is very common in languages with vowel features like stress and nasality (French has 13 oral vowels but only 4 nasal).
A good example of this is the word गेहुँआ [geɦũa] “wheatish.” My friend had a skin tone that would be praised by Bollywood as a “wheatish complexion” (गेहुँआ रंग /geɦũa rɐŋg/), a glowing light brown.
The idea is that speakers take input data like /geɦʊ̃a/ and choose a possible output that violates the fewest of their language’s constraints, set up in a table that looks like this: Since the top candidate violates our rule, it gets a * (and a !
for suboptimality, the “awkward turtle” of linguistics) and we choose the bottom candidate, shown with a finger.
Of course, I pounced on the opportunity to try out some of the tongue-contorting features particular to the South Asian phonological .